With the rise of modern workloads namely cloud infrastructure, media repositories, data analytics, backup and restore systems require a massive storage solution to manage critical business data. To cater such needs, Ceph storage comes with a scalable, open, software-defined storage platform. Ceph has the ability to transform your organization’s IT infrastructure by freeing you from the expensive lock-in of proprietary to manage the vast amount of data. Let’s explore in detail what is Ceph storage.
What Is Ceph?
Ceph is an open-source, unified, distributed software storage solution that provides a scalable and reliable clustered storage solution under one whole system. To run on a commodity hardware, storage clusters of Ceph are designed based on an algorithm known as CRUSH (Controlled Replication Under Scalable Hashing). This algorithm enables the even distribution of a large amount of data across the right clusters and sub-clusters. Such division of data simplifies the large data storage mechanism and also enables hassle-free data retrieval.
Ceph’s functioning as a storage system is made quite simple by making use of an object-based storage, block-based storage, and file system.
It is possible to mount Ceph as a block device and can be attached to virtual machines or bare-metal Linux-based servers. The block component is known to be Reliable Autonomic Distributed Object Store (RADOS), which can provide block storage capabilities such as snapshots and replication. RADOS is integrated with OpenStack Block Storage to work as a back end.
Let’s take a look at the benefits of block-based storage
- Potential to scale with Linux or other virtual machines
- Thinly provisioned
- Read-only and revert to snapshots
- Resizable images
Client applications possess the ability to directly access the RADOS object-based storage system through Ceph’s software libraries. Ceph object-based storage is an interface raised on the apex of librados to proffer applications with a tranquil gateway to Ceph storage clusters.
Let’s explore the interfaces supported by Ceph object storage
The object storage functionality is compatible with a large subset of the OpenStack Swift API.
The object storage functionality that is compatible with a large subset of the Amazon S3 REST API.
Ceph’s file system provides object storage and block device interfaces by running on the top of same object storage system. The file storage of Ceph makes use of a compliant Ceph file system known as Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) to store data in a Ceph storage cluster.
The metadata server cluster of Ceph carry out the function of mapping the directories and file names of the file system to objects stored within RADOS clusters. As metadata server cluster can expand or contract, they guarantee high performance by hindering heavy work loads on cluster hosts.
Let’s have a look on the benefits of Ceph’s file system
- Automatic balancing of a file system to ensure maximum performance
- Virtually unlimited storage
- Guaranteed data security for critical applications
- No customization is required to use file system CEPH FS with POSIX
How Is Ceph Storage Beneficial For Emerging IT Infrastructures?
To cope with the exponential data growth, organizations are on a massive search mission to find a solution that can effectively store large volumes of data at a reasonable cost. Read the rest of the article to know how Ceph storage is beneficial for emerging IT infrastructures deploying a cloud technology.
Easy to Manage
Ceph facilitates to invariably scale without affecting the organization’s capital and operational expenditures. Starting from cluster rebalancing to error recovery, Ceph dumps work from clients by making use of distributed computing power of Ceph’s OSD. A Ceph node is incorporated with a commodity hardware, intelligent daemons, and Ceph storage clusters. They effectively replicate and dynamically re-distribute data through an effective communication. Ceph monitors continuously monitor these nodes to ensure high availability.
Scalable Storage Solution
Data distribution and replication is made possible by adopting a scalable storage solution. During data distribution, a hash function maps the objects into placement groups. They then use CRUSH to assist OSD’s in storing object replicas. Data is replicated in a phase of these placement groups each of which is mapped to an ordered list of OSDs.
Ensures Data Safety and Recovery
Ceph storage ensures data safety by safely replicating the data updates on a disk to tackle any sort of failures. Ceph monitoring promptly detects and resolves the abnormalities experienced in the distributed environment. In addition to the safe data storage, Ceph also recovers clusters of data quickly.
To conclude, on the whole Ceph offers a holistic storage system by effectively addressing the scalability, reliability and performance issues and that’s why it is being widely chosen among the web hosting providers and businesses.
With the constant advancements in technology choosing a right option for building powerful and dynamic web applications is surely a tedious task. As we know, Linux, Apache web server, MYSQL database, Perl, Python or PHP posses a powerful platform comprising their own features. Won’t it be great, if there exists a platform which makes use of the above-said items together? LAMP technology is one such technology which has gained popularity over the recent years. With its power packed potential resources, it’s surely the most popular choice of web development among the web developers.
What is LAMP?
Linux based web servers comprises of an arrangement of four software components that form a software stack. These components are arranged in layers to build a powerful web application platform. This grouping empowers the websites and web applications to run on the top of this hidden stack. LAMP software is an open-source platform which uses Linux as its operating system, Apache as a web server, PHP as the object-oriented scripting language and MySQL as the relational database management system. Most of the Linux distributions fabricate the LAMP stack components in default.
Linux sets the foundation of the stack model and doesn’t require any specific distribution to put up a LAMP stack on a server. The commonly used distributions include Ubuntu, CentOS, Debian as they offer a wide range of online guide to support users.
The next layer is occupied by the most popular open-source web server on the internet. It has a modular design which includes a support to bind up with the web programming languages and modules for a wide range of extensions.
You should note that MariaDB is replacing MySQL in many LAMP deployments as there are cases where you will be using software that explicitly requires MySQL.
PHP sits on the top of the stack and it effectively simplifies the creation of dynamic web pages.
Working Of LAMP Stack
Apache web server is responsible for handling the web page requests coming in from the browsers. If it is a PHP file request, web server passes the request to PHP which loads the file and executes the code within the file. PHP communicates with the MySQL to fetch or store if the code makes any reference to the data stored in the database. PHP can effectively create HTML required by the web browser to render the web page using the code in the file and data from the database. As soon as PHP completes running the code in the file, it passes the resultant data to the Apache web server to send back to the browser. These operations are included by default in the Linux operating system beneath the server.
How LAMP Stack Benefits Your Business?
The most effective way to develop a simple to complex enterprise level web application is by using a LAMP as it holds customization, flexibility, and cost-effective, powerful security features.
- All the components in LAMP stack are open source software that is readily available in free
- You can develop and deploy LAMP-based projects without paying any license fees for distributing the software
- The use of PHP and MySQL facilitates quick error fixing and perform modifications as users have complete access to the source
Development and Deployment Simplicity
Powerful web applications can be built using LAMP technology with a simple code and it is easy to modify or extend the application as per your business requirements. Most of the hosting services provide standard LAMP based environments and can be deployed easily with no license fees and through Linux distribution such as Debian, Fedora etc
Unlike other technology suppliers, the LAMP stack does not limit your development options. It offers a complete flexibility to build and deploy applications considering your unique business needs.
As LAMP components are the open source they provide great customization features with a wide range of additional modules and functionality
LAMP technology is secure and stable. It possesses a powerful security feature to mitigate vulnerable attacks and if any error occurs it can be fixed quickly in a financially savvy approach.
A large number of experienced and good-minded people in the community are ready to offer a prompt support during the phase of development, deployment and so on.
Compared to other software packages, LAMP stack is economically savvy as it can be acquired at a comparatively low price.
In short, LAMP shines as an appropriate substitute to commercial packages and it operates as layered software programs that bestow an indispensable platform to develop and implement web-based applications and servers. A wide array of LAMP stack alternatives are available which includes LNMP or LEMP (Nginx web server instead of Apache), WAMP (Windows as OS instead of Linux), WIMP(Windows and Microsoft’s Internet Information Services web server) etc. All of these possess similar principles to use as an entirely open source solution, and the support for effortlessly installable versions with Linux distributions is an undeniable reward.
For an operating system to function efficiently, it should be synchronized with the various units in the system. There are chances of experiencing a system crash, eventually with a data loss when any of the units fail to connect. “Kernel Panic” is one such system crash.
On the off chance, if an operating system encountered a fatal error internally and unable to recover from it, then the operating system implements a safety measure known as “kernel panic” to stop the system from running and eliminating huge data loss. Majority of the users have come across this situation when a normal working system restarts all of a sudden and the work done since you last saved will be lost.
Causes For Kernel Panic
Kernel Panic can be caused by a number of reasons. Few suspected reasons have been mentioned below
- An inappropriate attempt by OS to read or write memory
- Improper installation of RAM chips
- Defective microprocessor chip
- Malware or software bugs
- Data corruption
- Hard-disk damage
How To Detect If It’s A Kernel Panic?
The term “Kernel Panic” is primarily applied to MAC OS X and UNIX based systems. In Windows, it is known as “general protection fault’, “blue screen of death” etc. Let’s explore how to detect a Kernel Panic in each of the operating systems.
On OS X 10.7 version and it’s earlier versions, the screen produces an alarm and fades to black containing a message to restart. In OS X 10.8 version and it’s later versions, the system simply restarts without any warning, followed by a message explaining the issue briefly.
On Linux systems, the operating system can deal with the serious error and continues to run known as Kernel Oops. Eventually, instability occurs and lead to Kernel panic displaying a black screen full of code.
On Windows you will find the whole screen turned blue, displaying a message to restart the computer.
Kernel Panic Troubleshooting
A log will be created containing the information of what occurred at each occurrence of a kernel panic. Even though the information is incomprehensive to the normal users, the technicians can effectively diagnose and resolve the issues considering then the information in the log.
Let’s explore how to troubleshoot a few common causes
In order to diagnose the software issues, you need to boot into Safe mode to load the core elements of an operating system. Linux doesn’t have a safe mode but a recovery partition. In Windows, you could boot into safe mode by holding F8 when restarting, whereas, in Mac, you need to hold the shift key after the occurrence of a startup chime.
Let’s have a look on how to troubleshoot the software issues
Keep Your System and Software Updated
Always keep an eye on the updates announced frequently. Make sure that your operating system including the drivers has updated to the latest version and also the software. Check for the programs that are launching on boot and disable the ones which you have installed shortly before the occurrence of kernel panic and then re-enable.
Make Use Of System Restore
The unsaved changes made to the system will be lost on the occurrence of Kernel panic. Hence it is vital to use Time Machine or System Restore to roll back to the state before Kernel panic occurred.
A key to effectively identify the exact cause of kernel panic is to identify the recent changes to your system, undoing the changes and then try re-enabling one by one.
Look For Disk Errors
To ensure disk errors are not causing a Kernel panic, you need to run the disk repair software built into your computer’s OS. As soon as your computer boots, if it crashes you have to boot into the recovery partition. To do this press Command + R on Mac and F10 on Windows. You can carry out booting from a disk or USB.
If you have upgraded the RAM on your system recently, check if is placed properly. Try removing the RAM if the problem still continues and if the issues are resolved, you should understand that the RAM is faulty and you have to contact the retailer.
Often we believe that large add-ons alone cause issues. But Kernel panic can happen even if there is a fault in your USB. You can re-connect the peripherals confirming if there is no fault.
Kernel panics are common and you will be experiencing it time to time. If you experience them on a regular basis, then it is obvious that the recent changes done to the system has caused it. However it’s not a wider problem and as long as you’re prepared to deal with it, it is easy to diagnose and resolve.